Friday, March 2, 2012


2008 DELHI

· Which country has the lowest sex ratio in the world? What is its sex ratio?

· Name the country which has the highest human development index


· Name the country where practically every farmer is a member of a cooperative society


· Which stream of migration is dominated by male migration in India?

Rural to urban

· What is the rank of India in human development index among the countries of the world in 2005?

· What is the meaning of human settlement?

· Which are the two main types of iron ore found in India

· What was the main aim behind establishing border road organisation in India

· Name the biggest sea port of India

· What is the main reason of degradation of the quality of water in India

· State six approaches of human geography

· Explain with examples any three geographical factors which influence the distribution of population in the world.

· Explain three characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing in the world

· Compare the features of rural and urban marketing centres of the world in three points

· Which are the three groups of Indian population according to their economic status? Explain main characteristics of each group

· Why is irrigation necessary in India? Explain any three reasons

· Why is conservation of minerals essential in India? How can we conserve them? Explain in two points.

· State any two major sources of air pollution in India? How is air pollution harmful to human health? Explain

· Define the term transport. Describe any four features of highways of north America.

· Analyse the five bases of international trade

· Explain any five factors which affect the location of rural settlements in the world

· Describe any five major problems of Indian agriculture

· Describe any five features of changing patterns of the composition of India’s import.


· Define the term growth of population

Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time OR

It refers to the change in number of inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time

(T.B.I, Page 10 )

· Which age group of population indicates the largest working population

Age group of largest working population is 15- 59 years. (T.B.I, Page 18 )

· Name the two activities on which the earliest human beings depended for their sustenance

Two activities of earliest human being – (i) hunting and (ii) gathering (T.B. 1 Page 31 )

· Classify industries into two groups on the basis of metallic minerals

Industry based on metallic minerals

(i) Ferrous (ii) Non-ferrous (T.B.I, Page 48 )

· Which is the famous petroleum pipeline of USA

Pipeline of USA – “Big inch”

· Name the international organisation dealing with the global rules of trade between nations

International organization for global rules of Trade- World Trade Organization or WTO (T.B. I Page 86 )

· What is the meaning of rural settlement

Rural settlement – most closely and directly related to land / based on primary economic activities. (T.B II Page 32 )

· Name the river valley where Gondwana coal fields of India are located
Gondwana coalfields – Damodar Valley (T.B II, Page 78 )

· Name the biggest seaport of India

The biggest seaport of India : Mumbai.( T.B II, Page 131)

· Which are the two polluted stretches of river Ganga in Uttarpradesh and Bihar

Two polluted stretches of river Ganga.

in U.P. – Kanpur to Varanasi

in Bihar – Varanasi to Patna


in UP – downstream of Kanpur.

in Bihar – downstream of Varanasi (T.B. II Page 136 )

· What is the new concept of Griffith Taylor in the field of human geography? describe this new concept with examples

New concept of Griffith Taylor in the field of Human Geography:

Neo determinism or stop and go determinism.

1. Neither is there a situation of absolute necessity nor is there a condition of absolute freedom.

2. Human beings can conquer nature by obeying it.

3. Possibilities can be created within the limits which do not damage environment.

4. Attempts to bring about a balance between environmental determinism and possibilism.

5. Example of traffic lights – red, amber (orange) green – (T.B. I Page 4 )

· Explain the three main areas of measuring human development

Areas of measuring human development :

1. Health

2. Education

3. Access To Resources. [T.B. I Page 26]

· On the basis of ownership classify industries of the world into three groups. Explain the main feature of each group

Classification of industries on the basis of ownership.

1. Public sector

2. Private sector

3. Joint sector

Public Sector : Owned and managed by government

Private Sector : Owned by individual investors / managed by private organisations.

Joint sector : Managed by joint stock companies / private and public sectors together establish and manage the industries.[T.B. I Page 51]

o The Panama Canal

14.2 Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean

14.3 Colon and . Panama City / Panama [T.B. I Page 75]

I The Panama Canal

II The Suez Canal

Characteristics : -

I The Panama Canal -

i) Connects Atlantic ocean and Pacific ocean

ii) 72 kms long

iii) It has lock system

iv) It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco

v) Constructed by US government

II The Suez Canal

i) Connects Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

ii) About 160 kms long.

iii) A sea level canal without locks

iv) Constructed in 1869 in Egypt

v) Terminal ports are Port Said and Port Suez

vi) Reduces distance between Europe and S.E.Asia T.B. I Page 74-75

· Distinguish between clustered and dispersed rural settlement of India by stating three points of distinction of each

Clustered rural settlements

1. A compact or closely built up area of houses.

2. Found in fertile alluvial plains.

3. People live in compact settlements for security/ defence .

4. Scarcity of water resource in deserts results in compact settlements for optimum utilization of available water.

5. Fertile plains / river U.P, Punjab etc.
Dispersed rural settlements.1. Isolated settlement in the form of isolated huts.

2. Found in remote jungles or on small hills.

3. Dispersion of settlement is often caused by fragmented nature of terrain.

4. Poor land resource base results in dispersed settlements.

5. Forested and mountainous areas eg. in Uttranchal, Meghalaya etc.
TB II Page 33 –34

· Explain any three major problems related to water in India

Problems related to water in India :

1. Decrease in per capita availability of water due to increase in population.

2. Availability of usable water is decreasing because of pollution.

3. Uneven distribution of water resources

4. Wastage of water.

5. Increasing demand of water in various sectors. [ T.B. II Page 67]

· Explain any three factors which have helped in the development of Hugli industrial region

Hugli Industrial Region :

1. Port facilities at Kolkata

2. Good transport network (roads and railways ).

3. Development of tea plantations in North East (Assam)

4. Processing of indigo and jute.

5. Availability of minerals (eg Iron ore ) in Chotta Nagpur Plateau

6. Availability of power resources (eg coal) in Damodar Valley.

7. Cheap labour available

8. British Capital available because Kolkata was capital of British India. [T.B.II Pg. 100]

· What are the three main categories of Indian railways on the basis of width of the track? write main feature of each category

Three categories of Indian Railways on basis of width of track

i) Broad gauge

ii) Metre gauge

iii) Narrow gauge

Main features :

Broad gauge :

(i) Width 1.676 m/ 1.6m;

(ii) Total length 46,807 km;

iii) Carrying capacity is high for passengers and goods;

(iv) 74.14% of total length of rail route in India;

(v) Fastest;

Metre gauge :

(i) Width 1 m.;

(ii) total length 13,290 km,

iii) 21.02% of total route length ;

Narrow gauge :

(i) Width 0.762 m or 0.610 m.;

ii) 4.94% of total route length ;

(iii) 3124 km total length ;

(iv) Generally confined to hilly areas ;

T.B. II Pg. 119

· Explain with examples the changing pattern of the composition of India’s export

Changing pattern of composition of India’s exports

1. Share of agriculture and allied products has declined.

2. Share of petroleum and crude products and other commodities has increased.

3. Share of ore minerals and manufactured goods have

largely remained constant.

4. Increase in floricultural products, fresh fruits, sugar, etc.

5. Increase in export of marine related products.

6. Engineering goods have shown significant growth.

7. Gems & Jewellery contribute a larger share of foreign trade.

T.B. II Pg. 126

· Explain with examples any three major problems associated with urban waste disposal in India

Major problems of urban waste disposal in India.

1. Enormous growth in quantity of wastes generated from

various sources.

2. Inadequate waste collection facilities .

3. Inadequate facilities for disposal of collected waste matter.

4. Solid waste causes health hazard.

5. Dumping of industrial waste in rivers causes water pollution.

6. Untreated wastes fermant slowly and release toxic gases to the atmosphere.

T.B. II Pg 138-140

· What is subsistence agriculture? Name its two categories. State three main features of each category

Subsistence agriculture is one in which the farming areas consume all, or nearly so, of the products locally grown. (1)

Two categories of subsistence agriculture are :

(i) Primitive subsistence agriculture

(ii) Intensive subsistence agriculture

( ½ + ½)

Main features :-

Primitive subsistence agriculture

(1) Also known as shifting cultivation or slash and burn agriculture

(2) Widely practiced by many tribes in the tropics, especially in Africa, South East Asia.

(3) Vegetation is cleared by fire and the ashes add to the fertility of the soil.

(4) Cultivated patches are very small.

(5) Cultivation is done with very primitive tools such as sticks and hoes.

(6) After 3 to 5 years when the fertility of soil is lost the farmer shifts to another part of the forest.

(7) Known by different names in different parts of tropical region such as jhuming in North Eastern states of India, milpa in Central America and Mexico and Ladang in Indonesia and Malaysia.

Intensive subsistence Agriculture

(1) Largely found in densely populated regions of Monsoon Asia.

(2) Dominance of rice and wheat

(3) Small land holdings

(4) Use of family manual labour

(5) Limited use of machinery

(6) High yield per unit area

(7) Low per labour productivity

T.B. I Pg 35, 36, 37

· Why are ports called gateways of international trade? Explain any three facilities provided by them

· Ports are called gateways of international trade because cargoes and travellers pass from one part of the world to another though these ports.

The facilities provided by ports are:

(1) Docking

(2) Loading, unloading

(3) Storage facilities

(4) Maintain navigable channels

(5) Arrange tugs and barges

(6) Labour services

(7) Managerial services

T.B. I Pg 88

· Name the five types of urban settlements in the world.write on main feature of each type

Types of urban settlements in the world.

(1) Town

(2) City

(3) Conurbation

(4) Megalopolis

(5) Million city

Features :

(1) Towns perform - Special functions such as

(i) Manufacturing

(ii) Retail

(iii) Wholesale trade

(iv) Professional services

(2) City – (i) leading town

(ii) Much larger than towns

(iii) Greater number of economic functions

(iv) Have transport terminals / major financial institutions / regional administrative offices.

(3) Conurbation

(i) large area of urban development resulting from merging of originally separate towns or cities.

(ii) Examples Greater London, Manchester, Chicago and Tokyo

(4) Megalopolis

(i) Signifies Super metropolitan region extending as union of conurbations.

(ii) Cities together with their suburbs with a population of more than 10 million people.

(iii) Example Washington

(5) Million City -

(i) Population of more than one million.

(ii) Number of these cities is increasing

(iii) London was the first city to reach the million mark followed by Paris and New York .

(iv) The rate of increase in these cities has been three fold in every three decades – around 160 in 1975 to around 438 in 2005.

T.B. I Pg 98 and 99

Four streams of migration in India-

(24.1) (1) Rural to Rural

(2) Rural to Urban

(3) Urban to Rural

(4) Urban to Urban

(24.2) Females dominance in all the streams. 1 mark

(24.3) In Rural to Rural stream female migrants are more because of marriage. 1+ 1 = 2 marks

(24.4) T.B. II Pg 17

· Describe five main points of the integrated tribal development project implemented in Bhaarmaur region

Integrated Tribal Development Programme in Bharmaur Region

(i) Improving the quality of life of the gaddis and narrowing the gap in level of development between Bharmaur and other areas of H.P.

(ii) Development of Transport and communications – roads.

(iii) Development of agriculture and allied activities.

(iv) Potable water made available

(v) Opening of schools

(vi) Health facilities being made available

(vii) Availability of Electricity

T.B. II Pg 108

For Blind Candidates – Common to 64/2 and 64/3

· Definition : - change of place of residence for a long period of time is called migration.

4 streams of migration :-

(i) rural to rural

(ii) rural to urban

(iii) urban to urban

(iv) urban to rural

one feature of each stream of migration

2009 DELHI

· What is the importance of secondary activities in the world?

Secondary activities add value/utility to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products.

· Name the terminal stations of Australian trans- continental railway.

Sydney and Perth

· Name the state of India having the highest density of population and also mention its density.

West Bengal [903 persons per sq km]

· Which state of India has the lowest literacy rate? Mention its literacy rate also.

Bihar [47.53%]

· Name the largest metropolitan city of Uttar Pradesh. Write its population according t census 2001

Kanpur [2.69 million]

· Name any two sub sections of cotton textile industry in the world

Handloom, power loom, mill sector

· How is the cropping intensity calculated in India

Gross cropped area x100

Net sown area

· What was the main objective to implement the fourth five year plan for the people in drought prone areas

To provide employment

To create productive assets

· Mention any two cultural activities responsible for water pollution in India

Pilgrimage, Religious fairs, Tourism

· Which one of the Indian sea ports provides port facilities to its land locked neighbouring countries. Name any one such country


Nepal and Bhutan

· Mention any six advantages of oceanic routes

1. Provide smooth highway traversable in all directions

2. There is no maintenance cost

3. It is much cheaper compared to other means of transport

4. Does not require route construction

5. The energy cost is lower

6. Ideal for bulky goods

7. Environment friendly

· Which are the two components of population growth in India? describe the main feature of each component

Natural and induced

Natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rate

Induced components are explained by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area

· State any six characteristics of road transport in India

1. One of the largest road networks in the world

2. Total length of 33.1 lakh km

3. About 85% of passengers are carried by roads

4. About 70% of freight carried

5. Relatively suitable for short distance

6. Increases the efficiency of other transport

7. Connects farms to market and factories

8. Provides door to door service

9. Very flexible, reliable and speedy

10. For the purpose of construction and maintenance they are divided into various categories

11. Quality and density of road varies considerably from state to state or from region to region

· Explain the concept of environmental determinism with suitable examples

Environmental determinism refers to the point of view supporting environmental control on human actions

In early stage humans were greatly influenced by nature. They adapted to the dictates of nature

The level of technology was very low. Accordingly, history, culture life style and stage of development of a social group and society are largely governed by physical factors of the environment

The determinists consider humans as passive agents. Nature determines their attitudes, decision making and life styles. Interaction between primitive human society and strong forces of nature is a typical example

· Explain how the differences in national resources becomes one of the bases of international trade

Resources are unevenly distributed in the world because of differences in their physical make up like

Geological structure- it determines the mineral resource base

Topographical differences ensure diversity of crops and animals raised.

Lowlands used for agriculture

Mountainous region for tourism

Mineral resources

These are unevenly distributed

Availability of minerals provides basis for industrial development


It influences the type of flora and fauna that can survive in a given region

Wool production in cold regions

Bananas, rubber and cocoa can grow in tropical regions.

· Which is the most effective and advanced personal communication system in India? Explain any four characteristics of it

Internet is the most effective and advanced personal communication system

1. Widely used in urban areas

2. It enables the user to establish direct contact through e mail

3. Used for e commerce and carrying out money transactions

4. It is a huge central warehouse of data

5. It enables the user with the basic facilities of direct communication

· Outsourcing has resulted in opening up a large number of job opportunities in several countries. Analyse the statement with three suitable examples

Outsourcing is giving work to an outside agency to improve efficiency and reduce costs.

A large number of call centres in India, china, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines, Costa Rica are providing great opportunities of jobs

New job opportunities are created by BPO’s and KPO’s

There is trend of outsourcing of medical tests and data interpretation. Hospitals in India, Switzerland and Australia have been performing certain medical services like reading radiology images to interpreting Magnetic Resonance Images [MRI] and ultrasound tests.

· Land degradation caused by human made processes are more harmful than natural processes in India. Analyse the statement with suitable examples

Land degraded by nature

Gullied land, desertic or coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land and glacial areas are caused by nature

Land degraded by human beings

Degraded shifting cultivation area, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, mining and industrial wasteland

Share of land degraded by human activities is much higher than that of the land degraded by nature

· Study the map given below and answer the questions that follow

Fig 8.6 pg 71 book I

· Name the trans-continental railway shown in the given map

Trans Canadian railway

Name the terminal stations of this railway line

Halifax and Vancouver

Mention any two characteristics of this railway line

1. It is 7050 km long rail line in Canada

2. Runs from Halifax in the east to Vancouver on the west

3. Constructed in 1886

4. It connects the industrial regions with the wheat belt and the coniferous forest regions

5. This line is an economic artery of Canada

6. Wheat and meat are important export in this route

[Blind]Name the transcontinental railway of North America constructed in 1886. Write any two characteristics of it.

Study the given map and answer the questions that follow

Fig 4.5 pg 35 book II

Name the northern most, southernmost and western most metropolitan cities of the country and also name the states to which they belong

Northern- Amritsar-Punjab

Southern-Madurai-Tamil Nadu

Western- Rajkot- Gujarat

[Blind] name any three states of India each of which has only one metropolitan city. Also name those metropolitan cities





· Describe in brief the different trends of population growth in the world from early period to the present day

~ In the early periods population of the world grew very slowly

~ During the last few hundred years it increased at an alarming rate

~ About 8000 to 12000 years ago there were only 8 million populations

~ In the first AD it was below 300 million

~ Around 1750 the world population was 550 million

~ World population exploded in the 18th century after the industrial revolution

~ It took more than a million year for the population to attain the one billion mark

~ It took over 12 years for it to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion. Nearly 80 million people are added each year

· Classify minerals into two groups on the basis of chemical and physical properties and give one example of mineral of each group. mention any two features of the three mineral belts of India

Two groups of minerals are

A. Metallic minerals- iron, manganese, copper, gold

B. Non metallic minerals- coal, petroleum, natural gas, mica


The north eastern plateau region

It covers Chottanagpur, Orissa west Bengal and Chhattisgarh

Iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite and mica are mainly found

The Southern Western plateau region

Extended over Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala

Rich in ferrous minerals and bauxite

The north western Region

Extends along Aravalli in Rajasthan and part of Gujarat

Copper and zinc are major minerals

Rajasthan is rich in building stones-sandstone, granite, marble

· There is low yield per acre but high yield per person in the interior parts of semi arid lands of the mid latitudes in the world. support the statement with suitable examples

~ The farming in these regions is practiced on very large farms mainly for commercial purposes hence it is also called as commercial grain farming

~ The total production is very large owing to the large farms but the yield per acre is low due to the extensive cultivation

~ Yield per person is high because these regions have low density of population.

~ The number of people involved in agriculture is less as the entire operations of cultivation from ploughing to harvesting are mechanised.

~ These include Eurasian Steppes, American prairies. Pampas of Argentina, Velds of South Africa, Australian Downs and Canterbury plains of New Zealand

~ Wheat is the main crop. Corn Barley, oats are also grown

· Explain any five major environmental problems related to urban settlements in developing countries

~ Most of the cities in developing countries are unplanned. It creates severe congestion.

~ Growth of slums create great environmental problems

~ The large urban population in developing countries not only uses but also disposes of a huge quantity of water and all types of wastes

~ Many cities find it extremely difficult to provide the minimum required quality of potable water

~ An improper sewerage system creates unhealthy conditions

~ Massive use of traditional fuel severely pollutes the air

~ Huge concrete structures erected to accommodate the population and economic play a very conducive role to create heat islands

· How is the small size of the land holdings and degradation of cultivable land are the two major problems of Indian agriculture. explain both these problems with examples

Small size of the land holdings

~ More than 60% of the ownership holdings have a size smaller than one hectare

~ About 40% of the farmers have operational holding size smaller than 0.5 hectare

~ The average size of land holding is shrinking further under increasing population pressure

~ In some states consolidation of holding has not been carried out even once

~ Process of division of land among the owners of next generation have fragmented the land

~ The small size of fragmented landholdings are uneconomic

Degradation of cultivable land

~ Faulty strategy of irrigation and agricultural development has led to degradation of land resources

~ A large tract of agricultural land has lost its fertility due to alkalinisation and salinisation of soils and water logging

~ Excessive use of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides has led to their concentration in toxic amounts in the soil

~ Leguminous crops have been displaced from the cropping pattern and duration of fallow has substantially reduced owing to multiple cropping. This has reduced the process of natural fertilization such as nitrogen fixation

~ Rain fed areas in humid and semi arid tropics also experience degradation of several types like soil erosion by water and wind erosion which are often induced by human activities.


· Define the term quaternary activity

Quaternary activities involve the collection, production and dissemination of information or even the production of information. Quaternary activities centre around research, development and may include advanced form of services such as specialized knowledge, technical skills and administrative competence.

· What was the initial form of trade in the primitive society?

Barter system

· Name the urban agglomeration of India that has the highest number of intra state migrants

Greater Mumbai

· Name the two states of India which have less than five per cent of population below poverty line

Goa and Jammu Kashmir

· On which five year plan of India were hill area development programmes initiated

Fifth five year plan

· Name the terminal stations of the longest railway route in the world

St Petersburg and Vladivostok

· Name the largest metropolitan city of Madhya Pradesh. What was its population according to the census 2001

Indore 1.64 million

· Name the oldest artificial sea port of India

Chennai sea port

· Which is the main source of water borne diseases in India? Name any one water borne disease

Water pollution

Water borne diseases-diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis

· How is the productive irrigation able to achieve high productivity in India

By providing sufficient soil moisture during cropping season

· Mention any six characteristics of commercial livestock rearing in the world

~ It is organized

~ Capital intensive

~ Commercial livestock ranching is associated with western culture

~ It is practised on permanent ranches. These ranches cover large areas and divided into a number of parcels

~ The ranches are fenced to regulate grazing

~ It is a specialised activity in which only one type of animal is reared

~ Important animals are sheep, cattle goats and horses

~ Products such as meat, wool, hides and skin are processed and packed scientifically and exported

~ It is practised on scientific basis

~ Emphasis on breeding and genetic improvement

~ Emphasis on disease control and health care of animals

· Classify Indian towns on the basis of their evolution in three different periods name one town of each period

Ancient towns, medieval towns, modern towns

Ancient towns

Varanasi, Prayag, Pataliputra, Madurai

Medieval towns

Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, luck now, Agra, Nagpur

Modern towns

Surat, Daman, Goa, Pondicherry, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata

· Describe in brief the changing nature of export items in the international trade of India

~ The share of agriculture and allied products has declined

~ Share of petroleum and crude products and other commodities have increased

~ Decline in the export of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea pulses etc.

~ Increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products and sugar etc.

~ Engineering goods have significant growth in the export list

~ Gems and jewellery contribute a larger share of India’s export

· Explain the concept of possibilism with suitable examples

~ The people begin to understand their environment and the forces of nature with the passage of time

~ With social and cultural development humans develop better and more efficient technology

~ They move from a state of necessity to a state of freedom

~ They create possibilities with the resources obtained from the environment

~ Nature provides opportunities and human beings make use of these and slowly nature gets humanised and starts bearing the imprints of human efforts and skills

~ Examples- the imprints of human activities are created everywhere-health resorts on highlands, huge urban sprawls, field, orchards and pastures in plains and rolling hills, ports on the coasts, oceanic routes on the oceanic surface and satellites in space.

· Distinguish between small scale and large scale industries by stating three points of each

Small scale industriesLarge scale industries
~ Uses local raw material~ Uses various raw material even from outside
~ Uses simple power driven machines~ Uses big machines and enormous energy
~ Semi-skilled labour~ Specialized workers engaged
~ Provides employment to a large number of people~ Uses advanced technology with less number of people
~ Caters to local needs/market~ Caters to national and international needs/market
~ Production on small scale~ Production on large scale
~ Requires low capital~ Requires high capital


· The density and the quality of roads are better in plains as compared to other regions in India .Support this statement with examples

~ Nature of terrain/relief

~ Level of economic development

~ Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in plains

~ Construction is difficult in hilly and plateau areas

~ Plains have large number of population therefore density and quality of roads is relatively better in plains

~ Density of roads is high in states like Punjab, Uttar Pradesh etc.

· Dairy farming is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals in the world. Analyse the statement with examples.

~ It is highly capital intensive

~ Animal sheds, storage facilities for fodder, feeding and milching machines add to the cost of dairy farming

~ Highly labour intensive

~ Special emphasis is laid on cattle breeding, health care and veterinary services

~ There is no off season

~ Development of transportation, refrigeration, pasteurization and other preservation processes have increased the duration of storage

~ Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania export their dairy products to Europe and other parts of the world

Study the map given below and answer the questions that follow

o Name the inland waterway shown in the given map

~ Rhine waterway

o how has this inland waterway been a boon in the development of the countries

1. It is navigable for 700km from Rotterdam to Basel in Switzerland.

2. Ocean going vessels can reach upto Cologne

3. River Ruhr flows through rich coal files and joins river Rhine thus making the whole basin prosperous manufacturing area

4. It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France Belgium and the Netherlands with the north Atlantic sea routes

5. It is the world’s busiest waterway

· [Blind] Name any two inland waterways of Europe. explain any two factors that influence inland waterways

Rhine waterway ,Danube waterway , Volga waterway

The factors that influence inland waterways are

~ Navigability, width and depth

~ Continuity in the water flow throughout the year

~ Transport technology

· study the map given below and answer the questions that follow

Name the union territory having the highest density of population. State also its population density according to the given map

Delhi, above 1001 persons per sq km

name any two states having density of population from 801 to 1000 persons per sq km

West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala

Name any two states which have population density from 401 to 600 persons per sq km

Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Nadu

· [Blind] Explain the spatial distribution of population density in India

~ the density of population in India is 313 persons per sq km

~ the spatial variation of population density in the country ranges from as low as 13 per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh to 9340 persons per sq km in the national capital territory of Delhi

~ high density states are west Bengal Bihar, Uttar Pradesh Kerala and Tamil Nadu

~ Assam Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Haryana Jharkhand Orissa have moderate density

~ hill states of Himalaya and north eastern states on India[excluding Assam]have relatively low density

· How has noise pollution become hazardous in many big cities of India? Explain with examples

~ The main source of noise pollution is various factories, mechanised construction and demolition works, automobiles and aircrafts etc.

~ there are periodical polluting noise from siren, loudspeakers used in various festivals, programmes associated with community activities

~ the biggest nuisance is the noise produced by traffic

~ in sea traffic the noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities being carried out

~ noise pollution is location specific and its intensity declines with increase in distance

· Classify human settlements of the world into two categories. Mention four characteristics of each category

Human settlements of the world are classified into two categories

Rural settlements

Urban settlements

Characteristics of rural settlement are

1. In the villages most of the people are engaged in primary activities

2. They are most closely and directly related to land

3. Low level of economy and poor standard of living

4. They supply raw material

5. Examples such as agriculture animal husbandry fishing etc. are the main activities

Characteristics of urban settlement are

1. In urban areas most of the people are engaged in secondary tertiary and quaternary activities

2. Higher level of economy

3. Higher standard of living

4. Urban centres are large in size

5. They produce finished goods and services

6. Examples- transportation, industries and services are the main activities

· Describe in five points the watershed development and management programmes initiated by the central and state government in India

~ Haryali is a watershed development project sponsored by the central government

~ It aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation fisheries and afforestation

~ The project is being executed by gram panchayat with people’s participation

~ Neeru-Meeru [water and you] programme has been launched by the state government of Andhra Pradesh

~ Arvary pani sansad in Alwar Rajasthan have taken up constructions of various water harvesting structures such as percolation tank dug out ponds check dams etc

~ Tamil Nadu has made water harvesting structures in the houses compulsory

~ watershed development projects in some areas have been successful in rejuvenating environment and economy

· What is density of population? Explain with examples the four physical factors influence the distribution of population in the world

~ The density of population is the ratio between the numbers of people to the size of land

Factors influencing population density

~ Availability of water

~ Landforms , Climate, Soil

· What is the importance of roads? Explain any three reasons for the existence of good quality roads in the developed countries

~ Road transport is the most economical for short distances as compared to railways

~ Freight transport by road is gaining importance because it offers door to door service

~ cost of construction is cheap

~ they can negotiate steep gradient


Developed countries have resources to construct and maintain good quality roads

The intensity of vehicular traffic is more

High capacity vehicles which are common need good roads

In developed countries good quality roads are universal and provide long distance links in the form of motorways, autobahns [Germany] and interstate highways for speedy movement

· Explain any five measures necessary for the promotion of sustainable development in Indira Gandhi canal command area

~ strict implementation of water management policy

~ cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops

~ the CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water

~ the areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed

~ the eco development through afforestation shelter belt plantation and pasture development t is necessary

~ the social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land

~ agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy


· Name any two areas of high latitudes in the world where gathering economic activity is practised

Northern Canada, northern Eurasia, southern chile

· Name the type of most of the great ports of the world

Comprehensive ports

· Categorise the international trade into two types

Multilateral tade, bi lateral trade

· Which class of cities has the largest number of towns and cities in India

Class IV

· Which sector[economic activity] uses most of the surface and ground water in India


· Name the place of Maharashtra where an atomic power station is located


· Name the iron and steel plant located in Chhattisgarh


· Which country is the largest trading partner of India


· Which export commodity of India has the highest value

Engineering goods

· Which is the main source of environmental pollution in India

Waste products of human activities/human activities/industries

· Which type of rural settlements are generally found in the fertile alluvial plains of India? Mention any two features of such type of settlements.

Clustered settlement/agglomerated/nucleated/compact


Closely built up area of houses

General living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures

They are of different geometric shapes such as rectangular, radial, linear etc

Sometimes people live in compact village for security or defence reasons

Examples- Bundelkhand region and Nagaland

[TB II 33]

· Classify industries of the world on the basis of ownership into three groups. State the main feature of each group.

Industries based on ownership-private sector, public sector, joint sector

Public sector

Industries are owned and managed by government

In india there were a number of PSU’s

Socialist countries have many state owned industries

Private sector

Industries are owned by individual investors

These are managed by private organisatins

In capitalist countries industries are generally owned privately

Joint sector

Industries are managed by joint stock companies or sometimes the private and public sectors together establish and manage the industries[TB II 51]


· How does technology loosen the shackles of environment on human beings? Explain with examples

The understanding of concepts of friction and heat helped us discover fire

Understanding of the secrets of DNA and genetics enabled us to conquer many diseases

We use the laws of aerodynamics to develop faster planes

The people move from state of necessity to state of freedom

The human activities create cultural landscape such as health resorts, urban sprawls, fields, orchards, pastures,ports, oceanic routes and satellites in the space

· Which are the two factors affecting tourism in the world? Explain each factor with example

Factors affecting tourism in the world- demand and transport


Since the last centrury the demand for holidays has increased rapidly

Improvements in the standard of living and increased leisure time, permit people to go on holidays for leisure


The opeinign up of tourist areas has been aided by improvement in transport facilities

Travel is easier by car with better road systems

More significant in recent years has been the expansion in air transport

Package holidays has reduced the costs

· Explain any three features of underground mining method used in different countries of the world

In this metod vertical shafts have to sunk from where underground galleries radiate to reach the minerals

Minerals are extracted and transported to the surface through these ppassages

It requires specially designed lifts, drills, haulage vehicles, ventilation system for safety and efficient movement of people and material

This method is risky. Poisonous gases, fires, floods and caving in lead to fatal accidents

Underground mining is also called shaft mining

· How is the difference in national resources a basis of international trade? Explain with three examples

Geological structure

It determines the mineral resource base and topographical differences esure diversigy of crops and animals raised

Lowlands hav greatr agriculture potential. Mountains attract tourists and promote tourism

Mineral resources

They are unevenly distributed the world over

The availability of mineral resources provides the basis of industrial development


It influences the type of flora and fauna that can survive in a given region

It alos ensures diversity in the range of varius products

For example wool production can take place in cold regions, bananas, rubber and cocoa can grow in tropical regions


· How is the degradation of cultivable land one of the serious problems in India? Explain in any three points

Faulty strategy of irrigation and agricultural development leads to depletion of soil fertility. This situation is particulary alarming in irriaged areas

Large tract of agricultural land has lost its fertility due to alkalization and salinisation of soils and water logging

Alkalinity and salinity have already affected about 8 million ha. Land and 7 million ha land in the country has lost its fertility due to water logging

Exvessive use of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides has led to concentration in toxic amounts in the soil profile

Rainfed areas in humid and semi arid topics also experience degradation of several types like soil erosion by water and wind erosion which are often induced by human activities.

· How has the introduction of Indira Gandhi canal irrigation in the drylands of rajastahn influenced the environmental conditions of the region positively? Explain in any three points

Indira ganghi canal irrigation in the drylands of rajasthan has transformed its ecology,economy and society

The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time and various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening the land

This has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems

It has slo brought a perceptible transformation in the agricultural economy of the region

It has led to the increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping

The traditional crops grown in the area like gram, bajra and jowar have been replaced by wheat groundnut cotton and rice

It has also led to the tremendous increase in agriculture and livestock productivity.

· Explain the three types of changes that have affected land use in India

Size of the economy

It is measured in terms of value of all goods and services produced in an economy

It growns over time as a result of increase in population, change in income levels, available technology and associated factors

As a result the pressure on the lad will increase with time and marginal lands would come under use

The composition of the economy

The secondary and the tertiary sectors usually grow faster than the primary sector especially the agriculture sector

This tye of change is common in developing countries like in india

The process would result in a gradual shift in land from agricultural uses to non agricultural uses

It is observed that such changes are sharp around large urban areas. The agricultural land is being used for building purposes

Contribution of agricultural activities reduces over time the pressure on land for agricultural activities does not decline


· How do slums develop in India? Explain any four miserable conditions of the residents of slum areas

Slums jhugi jhopadi colonies of shanty structures developed b people who are forced to migrate from the rural area to urban centers in search of livelihood but could not afford proper housing dueto high rent and high cost of land. They occupy environmentally incompatible and degraded areas.

Miserable conditions of the residents of slum areas

Residents live in dillaidated houses and poor hygienic conditions

Houses are with poor ventilation and lack basic amenities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities

The areas are overcrowded having narrow street pattern prone to serious hazards from fire

Most of the slum population works in low paid high risk prone unorganised sector

Residens are under nourished, prone to different types of diseases and illness and can ill afford to give proper education to their children

Poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism crime vandalism escapism apathy and ultimately social exclusion.

· Explain the meaning of rural settlements describe any four problems related to rural settlements of the world.

Rural settlements are most closely and directly related to land

Rural settlements are dominated by primary activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry fishing etc

Problems of rural settlement

Rural settlements in he developing countries are large in number and poorly equipped with infrastructure

Supply of water to rural settlements in developing countries is not adequate

People in villages particularly in mountainous and arid areas have to walk long distances to fetch drinking watr

Waterborne diseases such as cholera and jaundice tend to be a common problem

The countries of south asia face conditions of drought and flood very often

Crop cultivation sequences in the absence of irrigation also suffer

General absence of toilet and garbage disposal facilities cause health related problem

Houses made of mud, wood and thatch remain susceptible to damage during heavy rains and floods.

Unmetalled roads and lack of modern communication network creates a unique problem

During rainy season the settlements remain cutoff and pose serious difficulties in providing emergency services

It is also difficult to provide adequate healthy and educational infrastructure for theri large rural population.

· What is the importance of air transport? Describe any four characteristics of air transport system of India

Air transport is the fastest means of movement

It has reduced distances by minimizing the travel time

It is very essential for a vast country like inida where distances are large and the terrain and climate conditions are diverse


Air transport in india made a beginning in 1911 when air mail aperation commenced over a little distance of 10km between Allahabad and Naini

The real development of air transport system took place i post independent period

The airport authority of india is responsible for providing safe efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian air space

The airport authority of india manages 126 airports including 11 international,86 domestic and 29 civil enclaves ar defence airfields

Air transport in india is manged by two corporations air india and Indian Airlines

Now many private companies have also started passenger services

Pawan hans is the helicopter service operating in hilly areas and is widely used by tourists in north eastern sector


· What is the meaning of density of population/ explain with examples four geograohical factors influencing the distribution of population in the world

The density of population is the raio between the numbers of people to the size of land

Density of population is the number of persons per unit area


It is usually mearued in persons per sq km

Geographical factors influencing the distribution of population-

Avalilability of water




· What is the significance of inland waterways? Explain the three factors responsible for the development of inland waterways in the world

Rivers canalas lakes and coastal areas have been important inland waterways

Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers

Rivers are the only means of transport in dense forests

Very heavy cargo like coal cement timber and metallic ores can be transported through inlad waterways

Factors for development

Navigability width and depth of the channel

Continuity in the water flow

Transport technology in use

· Study the given diagram showing intra state migration streams in India and answer the questions that follow

· Which migration stream shows the highest number of migrants in both male and female categories

Rural to rural migration stream

· Why does this migration stream show the highest migration in both the categories give one reason for each

Male-due to work and employment

Female-due to marriage

· Why do female migrants dominate in all the four streams of migration give two reasons

Marriage, poverty, better opportunity, availability of regular work, higher wages, better education,better health failties,

· What is migration? Explain any four factors responsible for the migration of people in India

The change of place of residence for a long period of time is known as migration


Push factors

Poverty high population pressure on the land lack of basic infrastructural facilities flood drought cyclones earthquake tsunai wars

Pull factors

Better pportunities availability of regular work relatively higher wages better opportunities for education health sources of entertainment

2010 delhi

Actual growth


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